california advanced lactation institute
integrated lactation education

Nipple Shields & Breastfeeding

We took a long look at the research on nipple shields and put together a presentation on how they are used and some of the things people need to know about them.  

In March 2016, we hosted a local clinic for IBCLCs and other lactation care providers to talk about how we use nipple shields in clinical practice and what the evidence actually says about them.  Here are the slides from the evening's talk:

Some Helpful Links for Parents:

O'Brien, Rachel.  "My Ten-Step Process for Weaning from the Nipple Shield."  Retrieved from 30 March 2016.

Pearson, Philippa.  "Nipple Shields: Good or Bad?" Retrieved from 30 March 2016.

Pearson, Philippa.  "Breastfeeding with Inverted Nipples and Flat Nipples."  Retrieved from  30 March 2016.

Bonyata, Kelly.  "Nipple Shields." Retrieved from 30 March 2016.

The academic references for the talk are as follows:

All Photos from Riordan, Jan.  Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, Third Edition.  Jones and Bartlett, U.S. 2005 (unless otherwise specified)


Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Clinical Protocol 26: Persistent Pain with Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, Vol 11, No 2, 2016. DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2016.29002.pjb


Chertok et al.  "A Pilot Study of Maternal and Term Infant Outcomes Associated with Ultrathin Nipple Shield Use." JOGNN Clinical Research, 2006.  DOI: 10.1111/J.1552-6909.2006.00028.x


Chow et al. "The Use of Nipple Shields: A Review." Frontiers in Public Health, 2015.  DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2015.00236


Elad et al.  Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 111(14), 5230-5235. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1319798111


Kronborg et al.  "Why do mothers use nipple shields and how does this influence duration of exclusive breastfeeding?" Maternal and Child Nutrition (2016.) DOI: 10.1111/mcn.12251


McKechnie, Anne and Anne Eglash.  "Nipple Shields: A Review of the Literature." Breastfeeding Medicine, Vol 5, No 6, 2010.  DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2010.0003


Perrella et al.  "Case report of nipple shield trauma associated with breastfeeding an infant with high intra-oral vacuum." BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 2015.  DOI: 10.1186/s12884-015-0593-1

Download a copy of these references here: